Scientific discourse origin, characteristics, types and examples

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Egbert Haynes
Scientific discourse origin, characteristics, types and examples

The scientific speech It is a way of expressing yourself that is used to communicate scientific information, especially in technical language. These texts address concepts related to theories, experiments and research that have approval, verification and veracity.

The main characteristics of scientific discourse are objectivity, precision, formality, and an organized and systematized structure. All these features allow the content to be more easily understood and the exposed research to gain universality..

Scientific discourse is used in professional fields related to science

Scientific discourse is presented in different types, the most common are: informative, didactic and informative. Each of them is related to the kind of public that receives it, whether specialized or not. It is important to highlight that the varieties of this discourse share the traits of precision, objectivity and lack of subjectivity..

Article index

  • 1 Historical origin
  • 2 Characteristics of scientific discourse
    • 2.1 - Language
    • 2.2 - Objectivity
    • 2.3 - Clarity
    • 2.4 - Graphics
  • 3 Analysis and systematicity
  • 4 Types of scientific discourse
    • 4.1 - Disclosure
    • 4.2 - Didactic
    • 4.3 - Report
  • 5 Examples of scientific discourse
    • 5.1 - Teaching and dissemination
    • 5.2 - The impact of trawling off the coast of Margarita
    • 5.3 - The addiction to smartphones and the decrease in academic quality
    • 5.4 - Stephen Hawking
  • 6 References

Historical origin

The origin of the scientific discourse is linked to the first scientific investigations and to the need to transmit knowledge in society from one generation to another. Its existence dates from the first years of the invention of writing.

The consolidation of the written language in Mesopotamia and Egypt gave way to the formalization of the various sciences, as well as to the scientific discourse in each of them by their researchers and developers..

Characteristics of scientific discourse

Scientific discourse has the following characteristics:

- Language

The language of scientific discourse uses words and concepts of a technical nature and referring to each particular science. That is, the communicative code is adjusted to each area that is being treated, be it physics, chemistry, mathematics or other branches of science.

In this type of text, it is common to use neologisms or new terms that facilitate the explanation of the elements of the investigation. For their part, the new words have contributed to the enrichment of the different languages ​​and a better understanding of the environment.

- Objectivity

The use of scientific discourse as a resource for the transmission of information implies objectivity on the part of the creator. The result of the investigation must be based on concrete and verifiable figures, as well as on methodologies that make the object of the investigation reliable..

- Clarity

Another outstanding feature of scientific discourse is the clarity with which the research is presented. Therefore, precision must prevail so that there is no confusion in the approaches and the results are easy to understand for the recipient. Clarity implies that ideas are presented in an orderly and hierarchical manner.

- Graphics

In scientific discourse, the use of graphs, diagrams and drawings is common to complement the information that has been collected during the investigation. They describe, explain and expose the data in a universal language that facilitates the understanding of what is studied and at the same time they record antecedents for future research.

Analysis and systematicity

Scientific discourse develops from analysis and systematicity. In other words, the elements that are the object of study within a certain science are made known beyond a simple observation..

The analysis has to do with the study of the elements that make up the phenomenon that is being observed and described, what causes it and what effects it has on the environment in which it develops. In other words: origin-action-repercussion.

With regard to "systematicity", it is so called because it is linked to "system". The objective of this aspect is to demonstrate that a scientific fact is real by how the components that cause said phenomenon interact. 

Together the systematicity and the analysis help to discard the doubts that arise in the elaboration of the scientific discourse and strengthen the results obtained in the investigations..

Types of scientific discourse

Scientific discourse can be presented in the following ways:

- Informative

One of the types of scientific discourse is the informative text, which consists of disseminating or making known the elements, methods, experiments and results of an investigation in a certain science.

The main purpose of informative texts is to explain scientific knowledge in a simple and straightforward way. This is done in such a way that it is understood by all types of public..

- Didactic

Scientific discourse uses didactic texts to share knowledge by way of teaching. Therefore, the content comes from an issuer specialized in a specific science and is aimed at a receiving audience that has an understanding of the topic developed. That is, the audience that receives you is capable of forming their own criteria..

- Report

In other words, this type of text explains in detail the tools, theories, experiments, hypotheses and approaches that are part of a scientific topic that has been studied..

These types of speeches are made by experts for an audience specialized in a particular science.

Examples of scientific discourse

The following are examples of texts in which a scientific discourse is used.

- Didactic and outreach

These are examples of articles in which a didactic scientific discourse is used:

  • The solar system.
  • Decantation.

In this article you can review examples of texts with a popular scientific discourse.

- The impact of trawling off the coast of Margarita

Trawling is a form of extraction of marine fauna that aims to feed nearby and foreign human populations. This type of fishing has a notable impact on the environment in which it is carried out, because it damages corals, natural habitats and traps unwanted or endangered species..

In all cases in which this practice is carried out, there is also evidence of the theft of closed species (that is, they are not allowed for fishing) and very small specimens, which significantly affects restocking.. 

During the implementation of trawling on Margarita Island, not only marine species have been affected, but also artisanal fishermen. These sea workers have seen their activities diminish, as the species they used to fish for have been disappearing. This decline in small-scale fish production affects countless families that depend on the fruits of the sea for their livelihoods..

It is extremely necessary that the pertinent authorities create laws that safeguard artisanal fishermen and guarantee their rights and that stop the actions of the vessels that practice this very harmful way of fishing.. 

- Smartphone addiction and declining academic quality

The Industrial Revolution 4.0 brought many benefits to the various human societies, that is undeniable. Hyperconnectivity has created communication links unthinkable just 30 years ago.

Today we enjoy all the possible knowledge with just one click, not to mention the advantages in terms of new technologies in the fields of health, engineering and architecture..

The consequences of technological advance

However, all progress has its consequences. While it is true that technology has allowed a boom and improvement in telecommunications, and in these smartphones have played a crucial role, it is also true that in recent years a pathology linked to abuse in the use of these has developed gadgets.

The addiction to smart phones is a fact that reaches all social strata, without differentiating creeds, sex or ages. There have even been cases of parents who, in order to "entertain" their children, have allowed them to have access to said technologies without their supervision, which has led to addiction to game applications..

Young people, the most affected population

Of all ages, young people are the most affected, specifically those between the ages of 12 and 20. Recent studies have confirmed that the average teenager spends about 5 hours a day using their smartphone, enough time to do their chores and jobs, or any other leisure activity.

This behavior has caused those who suffer from this addiction to deteriorate their performance in the various areas in which they operate in their day-to-day lives. Thus, the grades in class, the housework, and even the interaction with friends and family diminish..

- Stephen Hawking

This Stephen Hawking speech is also scientific:

References

  1. Pereira, A. (S. f.). On the scientific discourse. Mexico: University Magazine. Recovered from: revistadelauniversidad.mx.
  2. Zita, A. (2019). Meaning of scientific text. (N / A): Meanings, Recovered from: meanings.com.
  3. Scientific speech. (2019). Spain: Wikipedia. Recovered from: es.wikipedia.org.
  4. Cáceres, O. (2019). Scientific dissemination texts. (N / A): About Español. Recovered from: aboutespanol.com.
  5. Guerien, G. (2015). Characteristics of scientific discourse. (N / a): History for All. Recovered from: walking towards all history.blogspot.com.

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