“There is no more empowering transition in a person's life than" learning "to speak. I must put the word in quotation marks because we have come to realize (thanks to the work of psychologists and linguists) that human children are genetically pre-engineered in many different ways for language. ”Daniel Dennett.
Historically, socialization processes are established as evolutionary changes that arise from interaction with others. In this dimension, the processes of social interaction can be approached from the levels; anthropological, psychological, and social. That is, socialization is established as a total process where the individual, through transactions with others, develops their patterns of behavior and experience.
From these circumstances arises the fact that the child's behaviors evolve according to the interactions that are generated with a mediator or caregiver, with whom they carry out a process of continuous socialization. This allows the emergence of three parenting models that have made it possible to understand children's behavior.
This name means "letting go." In education, it defines parents as they exercise little control over the behavior and education of their children, being very permissive and letting the little ones make many decisions and initiatives. Socially it is established as the free expressions that children have in front of various activities, which are established from the teaching-learning processes. Bearing in mind that parents will be the mediators who should promote and strengthen the child's exploration processes, so that the learning processes are fruitful.
Historically, this model is defined as a clay model, where children allow themselves to be molded by the adult. Adults are the first responsible for the socialization processes, assuming that children are moldable beings. In this dimension, socialization is a process initiated by adults whose end point is to transform the child into a critical and participatory agent. That is, in a subject that inhabits a harmonious space in the sociocultural fields.
It is defined as the socialization process in which children express their positions of agreement and disagreement on a topic. What makes adults observe children as participatory and critical subjects in the construction of the world. In addition, being conflictive for society is reduced to not agreeing with the notions of the majority, when the ideal would be to respect the different conceptions of the world that the other has.
Within a historical framework, it must be considered that socialization has been exercised by the mother to the child, mainly. Characterized by parenting patterns and eating habits that lead to processes of socialization or social interaction, which establishes the behavior patterns in infants and adolescents. In this sense, parental control techniques are developed from generation to generation processes, where the mother determines the socialization processes that the child will have using transitional objects such as toys. It should be noted that the study of techniques is defined as the set of activities that a person uses to move on to other activities, in order to change the behavior of the recipient.
This description would be incomplete if the communication of controls from non-verbal behavior is not established, which serves to dispose of the physical environment in such a way that the child can communicate. In other words, non-verbal behavior serves to generate language practices, which allow the child to strengthen communication skills and express themselves. In addition, obedience implies the choice of: taking the action or alternative that translates into the ability to say "No" indicating self-affirmation, it means rejecting the line of action suggested by the adult in favor of another produced by the child himself. In this dimension, obedience arises in the child from the sensitivity and cooperation in front of the process to be carried out, starting from three levels that are orientation obedience, contact obedience, and task obedience, which means that the child should feel like an active and participatory subject of the action to be carried out.
Finally, early childhood is summarized in the first years of life. The mother or father will stop being caregivers to become socializing agents that involve the child in the social fields that they will inhabit, characterized by cognitive and emotional processes in interaction with others. The task must focus on creating propitious spaces that allow this process of interaction or socialization inside and outside the school classroom, which guarantees a holistic look in infants..