"Literary species”Is a term used in some Latin American countries (especially in Peru) to refer to literary genres. This means that when talking about literary species, we are talking about the major genres: lyric, drama and epic.
The lyric is the genre that expresses feelings through verses. It is responsible for exalting emotions through words and rhythm. For its part, drama is the genre that is intended to be brought to the stage by one or more actors. The object of this literary species is to represent reality.
Finally, the epic is the genre that is responsible for narrating real or fictional events. This is also known as the narrative genre.
Likewise, the term "literary species" is used to refer to the specific products of each genre. As an example: some literary species of the epic are the novel and its different types, the tale, the legend, the myth, among others..
On the other hand, some of the literary species of drama are tragedy, comedy, and tragicomedy. Finally, some literary species of lyric are free poems, odes, sonnets, haikus, hymns, among others..
The epic is also known as the narrative genre. This genre is characterized by the fact that it is generally written in prose and because it narrates events that can be both real and fictitious..
The most common literary species of the epic are the tale, the legend, the fable, the myth and the novel.
The story is a short narrative in which events of not much complexity are described. In case the narrative sequences presented in the text are very complex, it will be a short novel and not a short story.
Some examples of this literary species are:
Fables are short stories characterized by the fact that the characters are animals to which human attitudes have been conferred.
These usually end with a moral, that is, an ethical and moral teaching that can be applied in our day to day life..
The best known fables are those of Aesop, a Greek philosopher who is credited with the invention of this literary species.
Like the previous ones, the legend is a short story. However, this is characterized by the fact that the events that are narrated are based on real life.
In the legends, real characters are included, whose stories are exaggerated and embellished.
This type of narration can also revolve around a famous place (such as Avalon), a precious object (such as the Excalibur, Arthur's sword) or an animal (such as the abominable snowman).
Some examples of legends are:
The myth is a short narrative in which supernatural events are narrated. In this literary species, elements of Greek and Roman mythology are usually included, such as the gods, Olympus, among others..
Some examples of myths are:
The novel is one of the most complex literary species of the narrative genre. It is more extensive than the species presented above and both the characters and the events are more elaborate.
In turn, the novels are divided into literary subspecies, among which the following stand out:
The dramatic genre is the one that is responsible for producing texts that are intended to be represented by one or more actors.
The literary species of drama are tragedy, comedy, and tragicomedy. It is a tragic drama when the events represented are marked by fatality, death, life's difficulties, among others..
The outcome is usually pitiful or dire. An example of this literary species is "Romeo and Juliet" by William Shakespeare..
For its part, the comic drama is one in which they include laughable elements and situations. The vices and defects of human beings are often highlighted to support the comic character of the work. An example of comedy is "The bald singer".
Finally, the tragicomedy is that literary species in which dire events are presented at the beginning of history. However, these negative situations are resolved and the outcome is positive..
The lyric is the genre that transmits emotions through words that are organized in verses. Some of the literary species of lyric are: