Endangered animals in Jalisco and causes

1538
Sherman Hoover

Some of the endangered animals of Jalisco They are the ocelot, the goldfinch bugle, the garter snake, the lesser diver, the large-legged leopard frog and the Lerma catfish.

Jalisco is located in western Mexico and is characterized by the enormous diversity of animals that inhabit the different ecosystems of the region. According to research carried out, of the total species that make up the Mexican fauna, one in two birds and one in three mammals live in Jalisco.

Ocelot. Source: João Carlos Medau [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)]

However, environmental problems, such as water pollution and the degradation of forests, jungles and mangroves, are causing animal populations to be threatened with extinction..

Article index

  • 1 Endangered species
    • 1.1 - Mammals
    • 1.2 - Birds
    • 1.3 - Reptiles
    • 1.4 - Amphibians
    • 1.5 - Fish
    • 1.6 - The special case of the Lerma river
  • 2 References

Endangered species

- Mammals

Long-tailed shrew from Guadalajara (Sorex mediopua)

This mammal is distributed in the states of Jalisco, Guerrero, Michoacán and Mexico. It inhabits juniper oak-pine forests, with elevations between 1875 and 3048 meters above sea level. It is also found in humid mountain canyons, in areas where there is a deep layer of humus and litter..

The populations of the long-tailed shrew from Guadalajara show a decrease, as a result of the deforestation of some regions where it lives. Because of this, the IUCN lists this species within the group with a low risk of becoming extinct..

Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

The ocelot is a nocturnal feline native to Central America, the United States, South America and Mexico. In this country it is located in the states of Sonora, Jalisco, Tamaulipas, Aguascalientes and in San Luis de Potosí.

The fur of this mammal can vary from pale to dark reddish colors. A large part of its body is covered in brown spots, surrounded by a black line. In relation to the ventral area and the neck, they are white.

Currently this species is threatened by poaching and the loss of its natural habitat. Also, the ocelot is killed by man, thus trying to prevent the feline from hunting the poultry it raises. Due to the decline in its population, the IUCN has categorized the ocelot as an animal at low risk of extinction.

Yaguarundí (Herpailurus yagouaroundi)

This feline measures between 50 and 70 centimeters in length and its weight is 3.5 to 9.1 kilograms. Regarding the coloration, it is presented in two different ways: one is reddish brown and the other is grayish or black. Both can manifest in the same litter.

Its distribution is very wide, thus covering from the southeastern region of Mexico to Argentina. In terms of habitat, it occupies deserts, swamps, thorn scrub and primary forests.

This species is at risk of extinction, mainly due to the destruction of its habitat. The regions where it lives are deforested and used for agriculture and pasture planting on a large scale.

- Birds

Lesser Diver (Tachybaptus dominicus)

This species is in danger of extinction, so it has special protection in Mexico, as stated in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001 form..

Its distribution extends to almost the entire American continent, ranging from the southwestern United States and Mexico to Argentina and Chile, through the Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago and the Greater Antilles..

In terms of its habitat, it includes lakes, freshwater ponds, swamps, mangroves and shallow rivers. The lesser diver prefers those bodies of water with abundant vegetation, living in wetlands completely blocked by plants..

The "gray macá", as this species is also known, measures 21 to 27 centimeters long and its body mass ranges between 112 and 180 grams. The adult bird is gray-brown in color, with a brown chest and a lighter lower body..

Goldfinch bugle (Myadestes occidentalis)

The goldfinch bugle is a bird that measures between 20.5 and 21.5 centimeters in length. The plumage on its head and in the ventral area can be from white to gray. The back is olive brown and the wings are darker. The song of this species occurs throughout the year and is made up of several notes, which progressively accelerate.

Regarding its distribution, it is found in Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Mexico. In that country it is located in Chiapas, Hidalgo and Jalisco. Its habitat includes subtropical and tropical forests and wetlands.

This species faces serious problems, since its ecological environment is degraded. However, it is also captured and sold as a pet, which represents an impact on their populations. Due to these situations, the goldfinch bugle is subject to special protection in Mexico, according to the NOM-059-SEMARNAT standard..

- Reptiles

Garter snakeThamnophis eques)

This species has a robust body, which can reach 1.12 meters. Regarding its coloration, the head varies between dark gray and greenish gray. Along the entire length of the body it has two rows of circular or rectangular black spots. In turn, the ventral region has a gray-green hue and the caudal area is yellow or cream..

The Mexican nomadic water snake, as this species is also known, lives in Mexico and in some areas of the United States. The habitat of this reptile is associated with permanent bodies of water that have vegetation. Thus, it is found in lakes, ponds, streams and in riparian forests.

Many of these ecosystems are degraded, mainly due to the alteration of the river or stream bed. Another factor that affects this species is the elimination of the vegetation cover, due to the excessive grazing in the area. This situation has caused that, in Mexico, Thamnophis eques is threatened, according to NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010.

Jalisco mud turtle (Kinosternon chimalhuaca)

This turtle is sexually dimorphic, since the male is usually 15.7 centimeters and the female 12.7 centimeters. Its carapace is weakly tricarinate and the plastron is small, so the ventral opening of the carapace does not close completely. In both sexes, the tail ends in a horny column.

It is distributed on the southern Pacific coast of Mexico, from the Cihuatlán River to the San Nicolás River. He also lives north of Jalisco and Nayarit. As for their favorite habitats, they are ponds with clear or muddy water, which may or may not have submerged vegetation..

In addition, it occurs in pools fed by springs, avoiding rivers, due to the movement of their waters. A large part of these ecosystems are degraded, so the populations of the Kinosternon chimalhuaca they have decreased.

- Amphibians

Large-legged leopard frog (Lithobates megapoda)

This amphibian lives south of Nayarit, west of Jalisco, in Michoacán and south of Guanajuato. In these regions it inhabits rivers, lakes and permanent pools in scrublands, as well as oak and pine forests. These ecosystems occur at altitudes between 823 and 1,520 meters above sea level..

The large-legged leopard frog is threatened as its habitat is degraded. This is mainly due to the clearing of the forests. Another factor that threatens this species is water pollution. Also, it is hunted to be consumed by the locals..

The range of distribution does not include areas that are protected, so experts suggest that regional bodies take into account their natural habitat within reserves and national parks. On the other hand, the Lithobates megapoda is protected by the Mexican legislature.

- Fishes

White carp (Yuriria high)

This freshwater fish is native to the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago hydrological system, in Jalisco. It is also located in the state of Aguascalientes. In these regions it inhabits streams, lakes and rivers.

In some areas it is extinct, motivated to the complete desiccation of bodies of water. In relation to this problem, experts point out that around 70% of the area of ​​occurrence has disappeared.

This is related to various factors, including droughts, competition with invasive species, and pollution. Due to this situation, the IUCN has categorized this species within the group of animals in danger of becoming extinct..

Catfish from Lerma (Ictalurus dugesii)

This fish measures between 60 and 91 centimeters. Its body is slightly elongated, with the head flattened dorsally. In particular, the upper jaw is longer than the lower jaw. Regarding the coloration, dorsally it has a metallic blue tone, while the belly is light.

The location of the Ictalurus dugesii It covers the basins of the Ameca and Lema rivers, on the Pacific slope. Thus, it is distributed in the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato and Michoacán. Its habitat includes large rivers with muddy or clear waters.

Regarding the substrates of the bodies of water, they include rocks, clays and boulders, associated with green algae and water lilies..

- The special case of the Lerma river

Lerma catfish populations are threatened by the exploitation of water resources, by pollution and by the introduction of some exotic species, such as the Oreochromis mossambicus and the Cyprinus carpio. Another factor that influences the decline of communities is overfishing.

Together, all those agents that alter the ecosystem have contributed to making the Lerma river one of the most polluted in Mexico. The large volumes of liquid waste, thrown by the numerous industries located along the riverbed, have caused the near disappearance of the flora and fauna..

These ecological alterations directly affect the Ictalurus dugesii, a fish very sensitive to the physical and biochemical alterations of the water. Thus, their communities are seriously affected, to such an extent that they have disappeared from various locations where they previously existed..

The situation has caused that, in Mexico, this species is in the threatened category, under the form NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010.

References

  1. CONABIO and SEMADET (2017). The biodiversity of Jalisco. State Study. Conabio. Recovered from biodiversity.gob.mx.
  2. IIEG (2019). Biodiversity of flora and fauna in risk category of the state of Jalisco. Recovered from iieg.gob.mx.
  3. Matson, J., Woodman, N., Castro-Arellano, I. & de Grammont, P.C. 2017. Sorex mediopua. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.
  4. CONABIO (2019). Bagre de Lerma, Recovered from encyclovida.mx.
  5. Domínguez, O. 2019. Yuriria alta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.
  6. Fuentes, A.C.D. & Samain, M.-S. 2018. Coussapoa purpusii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.
  7. van Dijk, P.P., Ponce Campos, P. & Garcia Aguayo, A. 2007. Kinosternon chimalhuaca (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.
  8. Caso, A., de Oliveira, T. & Carvajal, S.V. 2015. Herpailurus yagouaroundi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.
  9. Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela 2004. Lithobates megapoda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.
  10. Hammerson, G.A., Vazquez Díaz, J. & Quintero Díaz, G.E. 2007. Thamnophis eques. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007. Recovered from iucnredlist.org.

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